The supporters of the Hizbut Tahrir group filled up most of an 80 000-seat sports stadium in the capital, Jakarta, waving flags as they listened to fiery speeches that said it was "time for the caliphate to reign".
The meeting had been held as part of "civic education" for Indonesian Muslims, said Muhammad Ismail Yusanto, a spokesperson for Hizbut Tahrir.
The organisation advocates Islamic rule and is banned in several Middle Eastern countries.
Supporters travelled to the stadium in convoys of buses from other parts of Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim-majority country. Local and foreign speakers were invited to give speeches.
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